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Mut international

Es ist interessant zu sehen, dass in den USA der Kampf um die Anerkennung von Transsexualität als körperliche Abweichung vom Geburtsgeschlecht viel weiter fortgeschritten ist, als in Deutschland. So gibt es beispielsweise unter folgender Webadresse eine Reformbewegung zu finden, die sich mit der Reform der Klassifizierung nach DSM-IV beschäftigt und sich zum Ziel gesetzt hat, die menschenrechtsverletzende und diskriminierende Sichtweise nach DSM-IV ("Geschlechtidentitätsstörung") zu ändern. Die Unterstützer der Bestrebungen sind sowohl Psychologen, Neurobiologen als auch betroffene Transsexuelle. Im folgenden ein paar Statements (in Ausschnitten) von der Originalseite http://www.transgender.org/gidr/advocate.html (und einer verweisenden).

We support the idea that transsexualism should not appear as a disease in DSM-V or ICD-11, since nothing but socio-cultural values and preconceptions could justify it. Considering intersex has never been regarded as a mental disease, and that transsexualism does not differ from intersex as far as Gender Identity is concerned, there are no reasons to treat both conditions differently.


As a postmodernist, I believe that gender identity is not a disorder, whether one's identity conforms to social norms or not. I believe that it is an intolerant culture/society that is pathological, not a "variant" individual. It is my view that the treatment/therapy for so-called GID needs to address the problems of adjustment that result from living in a variant-hostile culture/society, not the readjustment of the individual to fit the culture/society. I advocate for the removal of gender identity disorder from the DSM as it is currently written. I don't consider that diagnosis to be therapeutic for clients, but rather a possible cause of harm.

Laura Acevedo - Graduate Student, Chapman University, MFT Trainee - San Diego, CA

Transexuality is not a 'dysphoria' or a 'disorder' - it is a variance of the normal - nature creates all sorts of genders so why insist that only the [straight] 'male' and 'female' options are normal? Stop making life harder for transexuals and other gender-different [or 'gender-original'] people by labeling them with a psychiatric diagnosis!

Graham N. de Bever - Medical student wanting to specialise in Psychiatry - South Africa

I am currently working on an ethics project addressing the inconsistencies in the ethics professed by the APA and the reality of what is listed as a "disorder" in the DSM IV and is stigmatized and submitted to rigid and stereotypic standards in the Harry Benjamin Standards of Care. As I am only one person, and still a graduate student, I am looking into joining with others working toward reform in order to add momentum to current efforts and hopefully have more of an impact as a member of a larger group of like-minded individuals.

Sarah Burgamy - PsyD student, Univ. of Denver (at present) - B.A. in psychology, Dartmouth College, NH (2000)

Although I once viewed the GID diagnosis as a necessary evil in the process of obtaining important medical interventions, I no longer feel that way. One does not need a diagnosis of nasal dysphoria to undergo rhinoplasty or adipose dysphoria to undergo liposuction. As a neurobiologist, I would still insist transsexualism is a disorder. However, it is not a psychological one. It is a medical disorder in which the brain and body are of opposite sexual differentiation. While the mind may be of the nonbirth gender, there is no reason to believe it is unhealthy.

Sarah Fox, Ph.D. President, Chrysalis Neurobiological Services Columbus, OH

Gender Identity Disorder probably does exist, but most of the hundreds of transsexual people that I've met don't have it. It is time for GID reform so that transsexual and transgendered people can access quality healthcare without being subjected to the stigmatizing diagnosis of a mental disorder that is not their problem.

Jamison Green - Gender Education & Advocacy, Inc., Board Chairman; - FTM International, Inc., past President.

With the increasing knowldege gained from hard research in the hypothalamus and in genetics, and with awareness of my own journey and the journeys of numerous transgendered persons, I believe that transgender is a physical issue missed at birth. As the medical personnel look at the genitals for designating sex identity and ignore the real origin of sex identity which is the brain, a tragic mistake is made at birth. The mistake is exacerbated by wrong gender socialization and cultural expectations for the individual. When the transgendered person develops awareness and understanding of the primary mistake and corrects it, the culture responds in many negative ways. It is the culture that suffers from dysphoria, not the transgendered person.

Lisa M. Hartley, ACSW-DCSW - Clinical Social Worker - P.O. Box 1354, Derry, NH 03038

The mental illness model of gender variance is the greatest hurdle we face in getting full rights. We can be accommodated by helping professionals without this stigma of psychosexual pathology. It’s time that gender-variant people look to the 1973 decision to remove homosexuality from the DSM. It is clear now that this was a pivotal event in the gay rights movement, and until the pathologization of socially unacceptable gender expression ends, we will not have equal rights under the law.

Andrea James - Owner, tsroadmap.com - www.tsroadmap.com

There are a lot of problems with the way psychiatry has viewed transgender folks. In labeling an identity as a mental disorder, as opposed to identifying symptoms in the same way we do for, say, major depression, anxiety disorder or other disorders in the DSM, the consequence of this is pathologizing and really hurting our clients. (Karasic & Kohler, 2000)

Dan Karasic, M.D. - LGBT Advisory Committee of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission - Attending Psychiatrist for AIDS Care, San Francisco General Hospital - Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco

I have suffered throughout life trying to be something I am not, a man. I have tried to be the gender that I appeared to be at birth. I am now in transition and find so many blocks in my way due to the classification GID falls under. All that is needed is a small change of wording to allow us to be medically treated properly, so our insurances will cover part of or all of the transition. It is time to legitimize the medical necessity of sex reassignment surgeries (SRS) and procedures for transsexuals who urgently need them.

Patricia Susan Martin - President e-transmall

I do not mind having a reference to Transsexuality in the DSM, because even though it may not be psychological in origin, other conditions that are psychological may mimic it. I do think it would be better not to use Gender Identity "Disorder" or other term that indicates a dysfunction. When I first looked into transitioning 27 years ago, one shrink told my father and me that I was "very sick." I was intensely offended then and I am offended now at any indication that I or my trans sisters and brothers are sick or mentally ill. I am just trying to be myself, and to have the world accept me as a happy human female.

Sachi Wilson - Assistant Attorney General, State of Washington

Transgendered and transsexual people bear an intense, pervasive social stigma in western culture. Besides the modern western religions, the origins of transphobia lie in the psychopathologization of gender variance by science. The linchpin of this psychopathologization is GID. Therefore... It's time for the American Psychiatric Association to assume full responsibility for the human misery it perpetuates by providing a ready apologia for those who perpetrate acts of hatred against gender variant people. It's time for the caregivers to really start caring. It's time for GID reform NOW !

Jessica Xavier - Gender Education & Advocacy

I propose a few things to better the situation. Gender Identity Disorder should be replaced with Body Vision Incongruity or something to that effect, that suggests that one’s internal vision as it pertains to sexual characteristics is signifigantly different from one’s body reality. When this incongruity causes undue mental and emotional (and sometimes physical, in the case of those who physically attack or sever their genitalia) suffering, the money and care should be provided to alleviate that suffering. Under this system, one’s desired end state would not need to conform to a binary notion of that which is feminine and that which is masculine.



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